# Skin Effect & Proximity Effect MCQS With Explanation

Skin Effect
• Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the conductor's surface and decreases with greater depths in the conductor.
• The phenomenon arising due to unequal current distribution over the conductor's entire cross-section is referred to as the skin effect.
• Such a phenomenon does not have much role to play in the case of a very short transmission line, but with an increase in the effective length of the conductors, the skin effect increases considerably.
• The distribution of current over the entire cross-section of the conductor is quite uniform in the case of a DC system.
• But in the alternating current system, current tends to flow with higher density through the surface of the conductors (i.e., the skin of the conductor), leaving the core deprived of current. Increased effective resistance but reduced effective internal reactance of the conductor.
• Hence due to the skin effect effective area of the conductor of the line decreases, so that the resistance of the line increases.
• The electric current flows mainly at the skin of the conductor, between the outer surface and a level called the skin depth. the skin depth is inversely proportional to the root of frequency. In a good conductor, the skin depth is proportional to the square root of the resistivity. This means that better conductors have a reduced skin depth. The overall resistance of the better conductor remains lower even with the reduced skin depth.
• The skin effect increases with the increase of cross-section, permeability, and supply frequency. It reduces with the increase in resistivity of the conductor material.
• Hence, The skin effect is negligible when the supply frequency is low and the conductor diameter is small.
• Skin effect is the tendency for high-frequency currents to flow on the surface of a conductor.
• The skin effect reduces the effective area available for conduction due to self linkage of flux. Now, we know that resistance is inversely proportional to the area of conduction so the effective value of resistance increases with the skin effect.
• If the resistance is constant over a large range of values of current and voltage, the resistor is referred to as an ohmic device.
• Hence if the current is uniformly distributed in the conductor cross-section, the effective resistance of a conductor will be the same as ohmic resistance.
Watch Video For Full Explanation About Skin Effect

Factors affecting skin effects in transmission lines are:
Frequency :
• The skin effect increases with the increase in frequency.
• At low frequencies, such as 50Hz, there is a small increase in the current density near the surface of the conductor.
• At high frequencies, such as radio-frequency, practically the whole of the currents flows on the surface of the conductor, and the Skin effect is more noticeable at high frequencies.
• With DC supply (frequency is zero), the current passed in a conductor is uniformly distributed over the cross-section of the conductors.

Diameter :
• It increases with the increase in the diameter of the conductor.

The shape of the conductor :
• The skin effect is more in the solid conductor and less in the stranded conductor because the surface area of the solid conductor is more.

Type of material :
• The skin effect increase with the increase in the permeability of the material (Permeability is the ability of the material to support the formation of the magnetic field).

Important Points:
• The Skin effect is negligible if the frequency is less than 50Hz and the diameter of the conductor is less than 1cm.
• In the stranded conductors like ACSR (Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced) the current flows mostly in the outer layer made of aluminium, while the steel near the centre carries no current and gives high tensile strength to the conductor.
• The concentration of current near the surface enabled the use of an ACSR conductor.
Important Point:
Skin effect ∝ 1/skin depth
Skin effect is inversely proportional to the skin depth.

skin depth = 1/√(πfµσ)

Where,
f = frequency
µ = permeability
σ = conductivity
If skin depth is more, then the skin effect is less and vice versa.
In the case of communication, line frequency is higher. So that skin depth is very small and hence skin effect is larger.

The depth to which the electromagnetic waves pass through the conductor is very small. It is measured in μm.

In the case of power lines frequency is small and hence skin depth is larger, so the skin effect can be neglected.

Therefore, Skin effect ∝ √(πfµσ)
When resistivity decrease, its conductivity will increase. This will increase the skin effect.

Proximity effect
• When the conductors carry the high alternating voltage then the currents are non-uniformly distributed on the cross-section area of the conductor. This effect is called the proximity effect.
• The proximity effect results in the increment of the apparent resistance of the conductor due to the presence of the other conductors carrying current in its vicinity.
• When two or more conductors are placed near each other, then their electromagnetic fields interact with each other.
• Due to this interaction, the current in each of them is redistributed such that the greater current density is concentrated in that part of the strand most remote from the interfering conductor. The alternating flux in a conductor is caused by the current of the other nearby conductor. This flux produces a circulating current or eddy current in the conductor which results in an apparent increase in the resistance of the wire. Thus, more power losses in the windings. This phenomenon is called the proximity effect.
• Eddy's current losses are also account for increasing ac resistance.
• If the conductors carry the current in the same direction, then the magnetic field of the halves of the conductors which are close to each other is cancelling each other, and hence no current flows through that halves portion of the conductor. The current is crowded in the remote half portion of the conductor.
• When the conductors carry the current in the opposite direction, then the close part of the conductor carries, the more current and the magnetic field of the far-off half of the conductor cancel each other. Thus, the current is zero in the remote half of the conductor and crowded at the nearer part of the conductor.
• The proximity effect occurs due to current in mutual conductors. The effective area of the current flowing path is reduced because of the non-uniform flux linkage between the two adjacent conductors.
• The proximity effect is more in the case of power cables because the distance between the conductors is small. This effect is negligible in the case of overhead transmission lines because the distance between the conductors is larger.
Watch Video For Full Explanation About Proximity Effect

Factors Affecting the Proximity Effect:
Frequency:
• The proximity increases with the increase in frequency.

Diameter:
• The proximity effect increases with the increase in the conductor.

Structure:
• This effect is more on the solid conductor as compared to the stranded conductor  (i.e., ASCR) because the surface area of the stranded conductor is smaller than the solid conductor.

Material:
• If the material is made up of high ferromagnetic material then the proximity effect is more on the surface.

The proximity effect occurs due to current in mutual conductors. The effective area of the current flowing path is reduced because of the non-uniform flux linkage between the two adjacent conductors.
The proximity effect depends on
1. Frequency
2. Conductivity
3. Relative permeability
4. Distance between the conductors

Useful Points
• The proximity effect occurs due to current in mutual conductors. The effective area of the current flowing path is reduced because of the non-uniform flux linkage between the two adjacent conductors.
• The proximity effect is more in the case of power cables because the distance between the conductors is small. This effect is negligible in the case of overhead transmission lines because the distance between the conductors is larger.

Ferranti Effect:
• At no load (or) at light load, the voltage at the receiving end of the transmission line is more than the sending voltage. It is known as the Ferranti effect. It is due to the charging current of the line.

Proximity Effect:
• The alternating flux in a conductor is caused by the current of the other nearby conductor. This flux produces a circulating current or eddy current in the conductor which results in an apparent increase in the resistance of the wire. Thus, more power losses in the windings. This phenomenon is called the proximity effect.

Corona Effect:
• When an alternating potential difference is applied across two conductors whose spacing is large as compared to their diameters, there is no apparent change in the condition of atmospheric air surrounding the wires if the applied voltage is low.
• When the applied voltage exceeds a certain value (critical disruptive voltage), the conductors are surrounded by a faint violet glow called the corona.
• The discharging current in a transmission line increases due to the corona effect because corona increases the effective diameter. So that the capacitance will be increased and inductance will be reduced.

Mcqs On Skin Effect & Proximity Effect

1. At power frequencies, skin and proximity effects are ________ frequency.
A. independent of
B. negligible at small
C. important at small
D. negligible at large

2. Which of the following is an effect of non-uniform current distribution in a conductor?
A. Ferranti effect
B. skin effect
C. proximity effect
D. skin effect or proximity effect

Answer. D. skin effect or proximity effect

3. The AC resistance of the conductor is more than DC resistance, due to
A. Ferranti effect
B. skin effect
C. both A and B
D. none of these

4. Which of the following effect represents increased resistance due to the non-uniform distribution of current in a conductor?
A. Proximity Effect
B. skin effect
C. corona effect
D. both A and B

Answer. D. both A and B

5. The effective resistance of a coil at high frequencies is more than its d.c. resistance on account of
A. Ferranti effect
B. skin effect
C. eddy's current losses
D. all of these

6. Skin effect is only noticeable at ______ frequencies.
A. audio
B. low
C. high
D. all

7. If supply frequency increases, the skin effect is
A. decreased
B. increased
C. remains same
D. none of these

8. Skin effect exists only in
A. low voltage dc overhead transmission
B. high voltage dc overhead transmission
C. cable carrying dc current
D. AC transmission

9. The skin effect of the conductor increases the effective value of
A.  the inductance of the conductor
B.  resistance of the conductor
C.  the capacitance of the conductor
D. none of these

Answer. B.  resistance of the conductor

10. Stranded wires are mainly used to
A. reduce skin effect
B. reduce metal fatigue
C. reduce proximity effect
D. both B and C

Answer. D. both B and C

11. Skin effect results
A. resistance in ac > resistance in dc
B. resistance in ac = resistance in dc
C. resistance in ac < resistance in dc
D. none of these

Answer. A. resistance in ac > resistance in dc

12. The skin effect in conductor results in
A. Increases in its DC resistance
B. Decrease in its AC resistance
C. Increase in its AC resistance
D. None of the above

Answer. C. Increase in its AC resistance

13. The skin effect of a conductor reduces with the increase in
A. Supply frequency
B. Resistivity of the conductor material
C.X-section of conductor
D. Permeability of conductor material

Answer. B. Resistivity of the conductor material

14.  Skin effect in a conductor becomes more pronounced
A. At a higher frequency
B. At a lower frequency
C. At DC
D. None of the above

Answer: A. At a higher frequency

15. The skin effect increases the -
A. Inductance of line
B. Resistance of line
C. Capacitance of line
D. Voltage of line

16. Which one of the following effects is resulted because of the size of the conductor, frequency and the specific resistance of the conducting material?
A. Thomson effect
B. Proximity effect
C. Corona effect
D. Skin effect

17. What is the result of the Skin Effect?
A. Reduced effective resistance but increase effective internal reactance of the conductor
B. Increased effective resistance but reduced effective internal reactance of the conductor
C. Reduced effective resistance as well as effective internal reactance
D. Increased effective resistance as well as effective internal reactance

Answer: B. Increased effective resistance but reduced effective internal reactance of the conductor

18. Skin effect is proportional to
A. ( Conductor diameter )4
B. ( Conductor diameter )2
C. ( Conductor diameter )3
D. ( Conductor diameter )1/2

Answer. B. ( Conductor diameter )2

19. The skin effect in a transmission line is affected by
A. the resistivity of the transmission line
B. the current magnitude in the transmission line
C. the cross-sectional area of the transmission line
D. the voltage applied across the transmission line

Answer. C. the cross-sectional area of the transmission line

20. What happens when an alternating current passes through a conductor?
A. It remains uniformly distributed throughout the section of the conductor
B. The portion of the conductor near the surface carries more current as compared to the core
C. The portion of the conductor near the surface carries less current as compared to the core
D. The entire current passes through the core of the conductor

Answer. B. The portion of the conductor near the surface carries more current as compared to the core

21. Skin Effect:
A. Increases the effective resistance and effective Internal reactance.
B. Reduces effective resistance and effective internal reactance.
C. Increases the effective resistance but reduces the effective internal reactance.
D.Reduces the effective resistance but increases the effective reactance.

Answer. C. Increases the effective resistance but reduces the effective internal reactance.

22. The skin effect is negligible when the supply frequency is ______ and the conductor diameter is ______.
A. high; more
B. low; small
C. low; more
D.high; small

23. When AC flows in the conductor the current is non-uniformly distributed over the whole cross-section of the conductor, due to which outer filaments of the conductor carry more current then the filaments closer to the centre. This results in higher resistance to AC than to DC and is known as the __________.
A. surrogacy effect
B. skin effect
C. spirality effect
D. proximity effect

24. The alternating magnetic flux in a conductor caused by the current flowing in a neighbouring conductor gives rise to circulating currents, which causes an apparent increase in the resistance of a conductor. This phenomenon is called the _________.
A. surrogacy effect
B. skin effect
C. spirality effect
D. proximity effect

25. In a conductor, the effective resistance and the ohmic resistance are the same, when _______.
A. voltage is low
B. power factor is unity
C. current is in true sine waveform
D. current is uniformly distributed in the conductor cross-section

Answer. D. current is uniformly distributed in the conductor cross-section

26. On what factors does the skin effect depend upon?
A. Cross-section of the conductors.
B. Supply frequency.
C. Permeability of the conductor.
D. All of these.

27. What is the cause of the skin effect?
A. Supply frequency.
B. Self-inductance of the conductor.
C. High-sensitive material in the centre.
D. Both (A) and (B)

Answer: D. Both (A) and (B)

28. By using which conductor is the skin effect reduced?
A. Bundled conductors.
B. Stranded conductors.
C. Hollow conductors.
D. Solid conductors.

29.  Skin effect is negligible for what supply frequency and for what diameter?
A. < 50 Hz and < 1 cm.
B. < 50 Hz and > 1 cm.
C. > 50 Hz and < 1 cm.
D. > 50 Hz and > 1 cm.

Answer: A. < 50 Hz and < 1 cm.

30. The current distribution may not be uniform in a conductor, which effect is this?
A. Skin effect.
B. Proximity effect.
C. Ferranti effect.
D. None of these.

31. Proximity effect is due to the current flowing in the
A. Earth
B. Sheath.
C. Nearby conductors.
D. All of these.

32.  Proximity effect
A. Is more in large conductors, high frequency
B. Increases the resistance of the conductor
C. Reduces self-reactance.
D. All of these.

33. Proximity effect is more in the case of
A. Power cables
C. Same in both cases
D. None of the above

34. The proximity effect depends on
A. frequency
B. distance between the conductors
C. relative permeability
D. all of the above

Answer: D. all of the above

35. Skin effect is more in the case of
A. communication lines
B. power lines
C. same in both cases
D. none of the above

36. Apart from the skin effect, the non uniformity of the current distribution is also caused by
A. bundled conductors
B. Ferranti effect
C. proximity effect
D. all of the above

37. The skin effect of the conductor will increase when
A. diameter decrease
B. resistivity decrease
C. frequency decrease
D. all of the above

38. If skin depth is more, then skin effect is
A. more
B. less
C. either 1 or 2
D. none of the above

39. Due to the proximity effect, the increase in conductor resistance is not negligible in
A. underground cable
C. communication lines
D. all of the above

40. The fact that current density is higher at the surface when compared to the centre is known as
A. corona
B. proximity effect
C. skin effect
D. all of the above

41. The skin effect is a phenomenon observed in
A. Insulators
B. Dielectrics
C. Conductors
D. Semiconductors

42. The skin depth is measured in
A. Meter
B. Millimetre
C. Centimetre
D. Micrometer

43. The skin depth is used to find which parameter?
A. DC resistance
B. AC resistance
C. Permittivity
D. Potential